Day 4: Neofreudians
October 29, 2009 by kltangen
After Freud, Adler and Jung, psychoanalysis began to change. These shifts weren’t so much the work of outsiders but by those who believed in the psychodynamic model.
The changes came from within. In the process of extending Sigmund’s work, their work unintentionally undermined the very core of psychoanalysis…how Freudian. The culprits were Anna Freud (Sigmund’s youngest daughter), Erik Erikson (analyzed by Anna Freud), Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, and Melanie Klein.
Anna Freud (1895-1982) helped pioneer applying psychoanalysis to children. She is best known for showing children look to parents for cues on how they should feel.
Erik Erikson (1902-1994) emphasized the impact of society on the ego, stressed the continuity of the present and the past, and proposed an eight-stage theory of personality development.
Karen Horney (1885-1952) is best known for her concept of basic anxiety and her emphasis on needs. She divided needs into 3 personality types: toward people, against people, and away from people
Erich Fromm (1900-1980) maintained that people have five basic needs (relatedness, transcendence, rootedness, identity, and orientation. To counteract loneliness, people use myths, religions, and totalitarianism to bind themselves to each other.
Melatne Klein (1892-1960) was the first to apply psychoanalysis to the treatment of children. She was one of the founders of object relations theory.